Vaccines can be divided into three groups:
mRNA, vector and dead vaccines.
These vaccines are based on parts of the virus RNA (= the genetic information of the virus). These parts are responsible for the formation of the spikes – the ” spikes ” of the virus with which it can dock to the cell.
When the vaccine is administered, the following happens in the body:
The cells start to produce the spike-producing proteins.
The defence system creates defence substances against these proteins, which means that in the future the body will be able to recognise and fight the corona viruses immediately. In principle, the vaccine simulates a corona virus infection and triggers the production of antibodies and other defence substances.
The vaccines from BioNtech and Moderna are mRNA vaccines.
Only parts of the virus enter our body through the vaccine and these will also disappear completely after a short time.
Our genetic information remains completely unaffected, not least because it is stored in DNA (deoxiribonucleic acid) in humans. Viruses only have RNA (ribonucleic acid). See graphic below.
In these vaccines, a harmless virus (vector) is used as a carrier to introduce parts (that do not make you sick) of the corona virus into the body. The infected cells – as always in a viral infection – start to produce these viruses. This triggers an immune reaction against the corona parts of the virus and stimulates the production of defence substances.
These vaccines also simulate an infection with Covid-19 viruses, except that these viruses are completely harmless to humans. The viruses, enriched with the RNA information for the spike proteins, cause an immune reaction that later protects against the disease.
The vaccines from AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson are vector-based.
Vaccination with dead vaccines is a procedure that has been established for decades and uses inactivated viruses that are not capable of reproducing. In this form, the viruses are harmless and do not cause disease.
In the body, they trigger an immune reaction in which defence substances against the disease are formed that protect against its occurrence in the future.
At present, there is no approved vaccine that uses this process.
After vaccination, the area around the injection site may become swollen and painful. In addition, symptoms of covid disease may occur.
The most common vaccination reactions:
- Chills, increased temperature and fever.
- Weakness, feeling sick,
- muscle, head and joint pain,
These symptoms can last 1 to 2 days and are a sign that a strong immune reaction is underway.
- Article Apotheken Umschau (German)
- Article Frankfurter Rundschau (German)
- Information from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health
- Other articles about Corona
Disclaimer: In this article I summarise information that I have gathered from various sources. I would like to point out that I have no medical training and therefore cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information.